Indian Journal of Endocrine Surgery and Research

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VOLUME 19 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2024 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Targeted Therapy in Thyroid Cancer

Upander Kumar, Nancy Raja, Rambhit C Dwivedi, Ashwinee Rahalkar, Mithun Raam, Kul R Singh, Pooja Ramakant, Anand Mishra

Keywords : Advanced thyroid cancer, Personalized medicine, Radioiodine refractory thyroid cancer, Redifferentiating agents, Tyrosine kinase inhibitors

Citation Information : Kumar U, Raja N, Dwivedi RC, Rahalkar A, Raam M, Singh KR, Ramakant P, Mishra A. Targeted Therapy in Thyroid Cancer. 2024; 19 (1):30-46.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10088-11236

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 17-06-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Abstract

Personalized medicine for thyroid cancer (TC) involves tailoring treatment plans based on a patient's specific genetic makeup and tumor characteristics. This effective treatment strategy is ultimately improving patient outcomes and quality of life. Various tyrosine kinase inhibitors, serine/threonine kinase or B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MEK) inhibitors, neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) fusion inhibitors, rearranged during transfection (RET) inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR) inhibitors, redifferentiating agents, and immunotherapies have shown promising results in the last decade since their introduction for treating thyroid cancer (ThyCa). These agents may be used for radioiodine refractory (RAIR) differentiated TC (DTC), disseminated, recurrent, residual anaplastic TC (ATC), and medullary TC (MTC). They hardly have any contraindications. The knowledge of their safety profile has expanded with more and more use. They have tolerable side effects and occasionally may require treatment discontinuation or switching to other agents. The armamentarium of available drugs and new targets is rapidly increasing with the results of clinical trials. Their use in pregnancy, the risk of hematological malignancy, geographical variations in their availability and cost, definitive guidelines, and managing drug resistance are current challenges. Advances in molecular diagnosis, artificial intelligence, and molecular scissors may completely revolutionize targeted therapy in the future.


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